PAJAK KARBON, KERUSAKAN KARBON, DAN PERTUMBUHAN EKONOMI DI LIMA BELAS NEGARA SELAMA 27 TAHUN

Riris Rotua Sitorus, Tangguh Pratysto

Abstract


The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of carbon tax and carbon damage on economic growth in 15 (fifteen) countries from 1990 to 2017. Based on the results of research by weather scientists who stated that there are 50-500 possibilities to limit global warming at 2 degrees Celsius above average global temperatures from pre-industrial times throughout the 21st century.Global warming is caused by cumulative carbon emissions which continue to increase from year to year, resulting in threats to the world's sustainable development. Therefore carbon production must be limited by imposing a tax on carbon so that economic growth can run normally and even increase.Researchers used the open economy model Y = (C, I, G, NX) namely final household consumption expenditure (C), foreign direct investment (I), government final consumption general expenditure (G), and import export per GDP (NX) for control variables. The researcher also used the Cobb-Douglas Y = (K, L) production function, namely gross capital formation (K) and the ratio of working people per population (L) to the control variable. The data used were panel data in 15 countries that applied Carbon Tax from 1990 to 2017. Researchers used GLS (Generalized Least Squares) estimation to analyze the effect of carbon tax and carbon destruction on economic growth.The result is a carbon tax can stimulate the growth of real gross domestic product per capita and carbon damage hinder economic growth.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Allen, M., Frame, D., Huntingford, C., Jones, C., Lowe, J., Meinshausen, M., et al. (2009). Warming caused by Cumulative Carbon Emissions Towards the Trillionth tonne. Nature, 458 (7242), pp. 1163-1166.

Alton, T., Arndt, C., Davies, R., Hartley, F., Makrelov, K., Thurlow, J., et al. (2014). Introducing Carbon Taxes in South Africa. Applied Energy, 116, pp. 344-354.

Calderon, S., Alvarez, A. C., Loboguerrero, A. M., Arango, S., Calvin, K., Kober, T., et al. (2016). Achieving CO2 Reductions in Colombia: Effects of Carbon Taxes and Abatement Targets. Energy Economics, 56: 575-586.

Carbone, J., Morgenstern, R., Williams III, R., & Burtraw, D. (2013). Deficit Reduction and Carbon Taxes: Budgetary, Economic, and Distributional Impacts. Resources for the Futures.

Carl, J., & Fedor, D. (2016). Tracking Global Carbon Revenues: a Survey of Carbon Taxes versus Cap-and-Trade in the Real World. Energy Policy, 96, pp. 50-77.

David, P., & Montag, J. (2014). Taxing Car-produced Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Matching the Cure to the Disease. Procedia Economics and Finance, 12: 111-120.

Fang, G., Tian, L., Fu, M., Sun, M., Du, R., & Liu, M. (2016). Investigation of Carbon Tax Pilot in YRD Urban Agglomerations-Analysis and Application of a Novel ESER System with Carbon Tax Constraints. Energy Procedia, 88: 290-296.

Floros, N., & Vlachou, A. (2005). Energy Demand and Energy-Related CO2 Emission in Greek Manufacturing: Assessing the Impact of a Carbon Tax. Energy Economics, 25:387-41.

Goulder, L. (1995). Environmental Taxation and Double Dividend: a Reader's Gide. International Tax Public Finance, 2: 157-183.

Goulder, L., & Hafstead, M. (2013). Tax Reform and Environmental Policy: Options for Recycling Revenue from a Tax on Carbon Dioxide. Resources for the Future.

IPCC. (2007). Climate Change 2007. Fourth Assessment Report. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Geneva.

Martin, R., Preux, L. B., & Wagner, U. J. (2014). The Impact of a Carbon Tax on Manufacturing: Evidence from Microdata. Journal of Public Economics, 117, pp. 1-14.

McKibben, W., Morris, A., & Wilcoxen, P. (2012). The Potential Role of a Carbon Tax in U.S. Fiscal Reform. Brookings Institution.

Meinshausen, M., Meinshausen, N., Hare, W., Raper, S., Frieler, K., Knutti, R., et al. (2009). Greenhouse gas emission targets for limiting global warming to 2" C. Nature, 458, pp. 1158-1162.

OCDE. (2013). Effective Carbon Prices. OECD Publishing.

Ploeg, F. v., & Rezai, A. (2016). Cumulative Emissions, Unburnable Fossil Fuel, and the Optimal Carbon Tax. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 7.

Sokolov, A., Stone, P., Forest, C., Prinn, R., Sarofim, M., Webster, M., et al. (2009). Probabilistic Forecast for Twenty-first-century Climate based on Uncertainties in Emissions (without Policy) and Climate Parameters. J Clim, 22, pp. 5175-204.

Stavins, R. (2011). The Problem of the Commons: Still Unsettled After 100 Years. Am. Econ. Rev., 101, pp. 81-108.

Stram, B. N. (2014). A New Strategic Plan for a Carbon Tax. Energy Policy, 73: 519-523.

Taylor, D. D., Paiva, S., & Slocum, A. H. (2017). An Alternative to Carbon Taxes to Finance Renewable Energy Systems and Offset Hydrocarbon based Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, 19:136-145.

The World Bank. (n.d.). World Bank Open Data. Retrieved February 1, 2017, from The World Bank Group: http://data.worldbank.org/

The World Bank; Ecofys. (2016). Carbon Pricing Watch 2016. Washington, DC: The World Bank.

Van Heerden, J., Gerlagh, R., Blignaut, J., Horridge, M., Hess, S., Mabugu, R., et al. (2006). Searching for Triple Dividends in South Africa: Fighting CO2 Pollution and Poverty while Promoting Growth. Energy J, 27(2), pp. 113-41.

Weitzman, M. (2011). Fat-tailed Uncertainty in the Economics of Catastrophic Climate Change. Rev Environ Economic Policy, 5(2), pp. 275-92.

Zhao, Y.-H. (2011). The Study of Effect of Carbon Tax on the International Competitiveness of Energy-intensive Industries: An Empirical Analysis of OECD 21 Countries, 1992-2008. Energy Procedia, 5:1291-1302.

Zhenxiang, W., Weijuan, L., & Ti, W. (2011). The Impacts and Countermeasures of levying Carbon Tax in China under Low-carbon Economy. Energy Procedia, 5: 1968-1973.

Zhixin, Z., & Ya, L. (2011). The Impact of Carbon Tax on Economic Growth in China. Energy Proceedia, 5:1757-1761.

Zhou, S., Shi, M., Li, N., & Yuan, Y. (2011). Impacts of Carbon Tax Policy on CO2 Mitigation and Economic Growth in China. Advances in Climate Change Research, 2(3): 124-133.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.31000/jmb.v7i2.1060

Article Metrics

Abstract - 2586 PDF - 2112

DOI (PDF): http://dx.doi.org/10.31000/jmb.v7i2.1060.g672

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.